If you use the cash method of accounting, you can deduct the cost of livestock and other items purchased for resale in Part I of Schedule F in the year of sale. This cost includes freight charges for transporting the livestock to the farm. Ordinarily, this is the only time you can deduct the purchase price. Refer to Farm Business Expenses, Items Purchased for Resale in Publication 225.
You report on the cash method. In 2000, you buy 50 steers you will sell in 2001. You will report the sales price minus the purchase price (and any freight cost) as income in Part I of your 2001 Schedule F.